„YOUR NERVES ARE HERE NOT AT FAULT” – ON THE CONCEPT OF ILLNESS IN NIETZSCHE’S PHILOSOPHY
keywords: Friedrich Nietzsche, corporeality, illness, interpretation, diet
The article propounds an interpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy, in which the issue of illness would be instrumental. However, in contrast to any kind of reductionary biographism, the illness should be conceived as inextricably intertwined with the thinking itself. Nietzsche’s own illness was initially nothing more than a personal problem, yet it soon influenced his whole life, forcing to forgo the academic career. Thus afflicted, the philosopher used his experience to develop a new view on corporeality, diametrically opposed to Cartesianism. In the post-Cartesian model, objective thinking and illness have nothing in common; either corporal suffering exerts no influence upon thoughts, or the mind sinks into pure insanity. Whoever lost their faculties is still capable to stick to rationality, if only they accept the diagnosis, however subjectively unconvincing it would seem. Suspicious of the notion of truth, Nietzsche reverses the post-Cartesian model. Objective thinking, neatly separated from illness, as well as rational diagnoses appear to him as a fetish supporting those who cannot deal with their own corporeality. They repress their weaknesses, assuming the unfounded belief in objective thinking, which can be practiced irrespective of personal malaise. However, Nietzsche’s suffering, which recurred irregularly and had no detectable grounds, couldn’t be separated not only from thinking, but from life as such. The philosopher was thus lead to advance a concept of “diet”, construed as broadly as possible, including the selection of food, lectures and embraced thoughts. The diet is the uttermost refutation of diagnosis, as it treats the mind and the body as a unity changing in time. The illness, which accompanies life inevitably, serves as a permanent yardstick of quality of our thoughts. Moreover, it gives us the opportunity to experience pure becoming.
THE CRITIQUE OF MODERN SOCIAL RELATIONS AS THE FOUNDATION OF THE POSTMODERN ART OF LIFE – THE EXISTENTIAL DIMENSION OF THE WORK OF MICHEL FOUCAULT
keywords: cultural revolution, critique, art of reigning, christian priesthood, art of existence, common good, sexuality, postmodernity
The aim of the present article is to reveal the essential connection of Michel Foucault’s critical attitude regarding social relationships with the formation of the postmodern ethos of making out of the human life an artwork. It will be shown that the main object of Foucault’s critique are the relations of power and knowledge in the Christian priesthood and their modern transformation in nonreligious institutions. From this point of view, mainly based on the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, the Christian ethics occur to be an accumulation of techniques of disciplinization and normalization. This attitude towards Christianity and modernity leads to the postmodern ethos of making out of life an artwork. This notion is mainly based on the antique Greek and Roman philosophy, where instead of obeying to universal ethical principles the human being struggled to be his own master. Therefore the postmodern existence tries to be beyond all traditional boundaries, which results in the danger of neglecting the historical fact, that Christianity was and still is an important institution of the Western Civilization.
IDEA OF THE STATE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MINARCHISTS AND ANARCHO-CAPITALISTS
keywords: state, minarchism, anarcho-capitalism, Friedrich A. von Hayek, Murray N. Rothbard, Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Robert Nozick
This scientific article treats of libertarianism. Its fundamental premises are: conception of self-ownership, non-aggression axiom, proprietorship, free market, ‘no victim, no crime’ rule, aversion to the state institutions. The existence of libertarianism itself is the most prominent subject of dispute between its two currents: minarchism and anarcho-capitalism. The adherents of the doctrine of minimal statism were Friedrich A. von Hayek and Milton Friedman, while Murray N. Rothbard and Hans Hermann Hoppe were the followers of the free-market anarchy. The traditional, one-dimensional division into the left and right wing is not sufficient for the libertarianism to find its place on the political scene. It is multidimensionality that characterizes the libertarian thought.
keywords: Morrison, ethics of reading, narrative, implied author, reader, Sethe’s choice, ethical guidance
The article undertakes the consideration of ethics of reading in the context of narrative strategies in reference of Toni Morrison’s novel Beloved. The logical, psychological and moral axis of novel is problem of Sethe’s rough choice to kill her daughter rather than see her return to slavery. Author of article claims that Morrison’s treatment of Sethe’s choice creates an ethical relationship with an audience. The paperpresents the Wayne Booth, Martha Nussbaum, Adam Zachary Newton, and JamesPhelan’s approaches to ethics of reading. Author relies on Phelan’s interpretation of Sethe’s choice largely. The Sethe’s deed is presented from perspective of three tellings: slave catcher, Stamp Paid and Sethe. Afterwards the Phelan’s approach is supplemented by tellings of Beloved and Denver. In conclusion author claims that Morrison’s treatment of Sethe’s choice implies that Sethe’s deed is beyond the reach of standard ethical judgment.
keywords: freedom, consciousness, nothingness, the Other, god, death
As a literary work, Jean Paul Sartre’s theatrical arts gathered together in a Polish publication named Dramas propagates and illustrates in detail the real philosophical masterpiece which is Being and Nothingness. Inspired by the author’s philosophical doctrine, dramas were made to show the existential thought. In that way Sartre-philosopher in Being and Nothingness reveals his thought in a explicative way. On the other hand, Sartre-playwright by writing dramas creates unrestricted realities which can be in various ways projected into the readers’ imagination, and there his general theses find detailed application. Philosopher wanted to show the philosophical truth through literature, and he was very consistent about it. Being and Nothingness and Dramas could be treated as sources of knowledge about his philosophy, just like his novels or works about his literature. Sartre uses his philosophical program to realize his ideas for prose. It appears that philosopher did not divide the notion between “philosophical literature” and “literary philosophy”. Sartre is the creator of the theater of situations because characters from his dramas find themselves in concrete situations and they have to make specific decisions. The dramas of the philosopher have a moralistic tone because we see in them Sartre’s concept which says that humans may reject the role which society gave him. Man can choose the authentic existence. Philosopher’s mission was to influence the readers of his works. He desired to convey to people the truth about human freedom. In conclusion, Sartre’s dramas are a kind of theatrical phenomenon, because as a philosopher he interested the spectator as much as a playwright.
keywords: intuition, expression, abstraction, feeling, imagination, Absolute
Theory of art as so called the theory of intuition-expression extremely and clearly demonstrates the way of a mystic experience as a experience of the Absolute. Croce’s concept of the Absolute is a sign of being spiritual, no diverse in itself, what is more fully given in an emotional (feeling)artistic expression (artwork). Imagination as an appropriate representational power expressively became, in this context, the sphere of the Absolute (indifferent intuition, totality of Being) in which the Absolute realizes – through creation of art – the material world. An artist, because of his creative imagination, appears for Croce as a complete, perfect man and fulfills a creative and demiurge function for the world. According to Kandinsky, inspired by Steiner’s anthroposophy, art doesn’t present concrete things but using a maximum simplistic concrete form, expresses and shows things in itself, as an ideal, spiritual, absolute but compared to the world of concretes, the mentioned things are internal, substantial, essential and “abstractive”. Abstraction as a “true reality” demands of giving up the empirical world and looking continuously at the sphere of absolute “necessity”. Art is a specific, inspired knowledge of the Absolute and an abstract artist inspired by this knowledge and expressing it in his artworks must be understood in a way characteristic of mysticism (an inspired visionary-prophet, perfect man).In Adorno’s aesthetic theory art actualizes the nature in aspect of beauty and this actualization consists in changing towards the lack of identity. An individual (each one) artwork is the “epiphany” of “spirit” of art, that is an aesthetically Absolute. As a result an artwork presents itself as a kind of “mystic event”, but an artist expressing the sphere of the Absolute still be an inspired visionary going beyond the natural (empirical) order. All of these theories of art are based on the old neoplato-arabian theory of “creative imagination” which determinates their quasi- or pseudo-mystic aspiration. They are not go beyond tradition, that is “natural mysticism” (characteristic of pantheism). This kind of mysticism differs from revelation mysticism on the grounds of Transcendence (aspect of a object) and classical moment of contemplation (aspect of a subject).
keywords: Tatarkiewicz, happiness, satisfaction of life, luck, eudaimonia
The aim of this article is the analysis of the term of the happiness on the basis of the Władysław Tatarkiewicz’s conception. According to his work O szczęściu (About Happiness) happiness is defined here as justified, full, constant satisfaction from the life as a whole. Considering the individual elements of this definition leads to the better understanding of the term and lets to assign the area of its application. The article also attempts to response the two fundamental questions concerning the happiness. The first: is the happiness the aim or rather the result of our endeavors? And the second: does the happiness depend on ourselves or rather on the external circumstances?